Communication is a necessity for human life. By the communication, people can interact and get to know the surroundings well. A new era in the field of wireless communications has emerged, along with the development of communication technology, especially wireless communication technology. Communication technology is a technology that is growing very rapidly. Similarly, the mobile technology experienced by mobile phones, starting with the service called 1G up to the latest 4G. 1G is the first generation of mobile technology in the history of mobile phones and 4G is the latest mobile technology that will replace 3G in the future.
1. Zero Generation (0G)
Zero Generation (0G) is the earliest modern mobile phone technology, using a special radio wave network (radiotelephone) with limited network coverage and can connect with ordinary public telephone network. This technology is used in cars and trucks. This generation can only be able to serve the voice communication only and this is the beginning of mobile communication technology that is implemented and commercialized. Its disadvantage is not able to support data communication.
2. First generation (1G)
This generation is the first mobile phone technology introduced in the ‘80s and still uses analog systems. This first generation uses communication technique called Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). This technique allows us to divide the frequency allocation in a cell to be used by various customers, so that each customer can have their own frequency (principally as a radio station in which the radio station uses only one frequency to broadcast).
3. Second Generation (2G)
This generation was released in the early 90s because of the demands of the market and the need for better quality. 2G uses digital technology. This generation uses the mechanism of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Implementation of this technology is GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), which is currently used by nearly one-third of the total world population. Its weakness lies in its data transfer speed and its dependence on the signal transmitter tower.
4. Generation 2.5G
This technology is GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) that adds packet switching into the GSM network. GPRS is often regarded as generation 2.5 G, namely digital technology at medium speed (up to 150 Kbps), GPRS is also the root of the emergence of 4G.
5. Third Generation (3G)
This technology was developed by a group of experts and business people who are competent in the field of wireless technology in the world. This technology relies on the high-speed data access making it possible to provide a wide range of compelling data services. This technology allows the communication process via video.
6. Fourth Generation (4G)
4G is the development of 3G technology. The official name of this recent mobile technology by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is “3G and beyond”. The discovery of this 4G technology started with the idea of reducing the transmission power to increase the speed of data transmission. This system is able to provide a comprehensive solution where voice, data and multimedia flows can be available anytime and anywhere.